Logical Reasoning

Analogy Set: 5

Directions to Solve:

A good way to figure out the relationship in a given question is to make up a sentence that describes the relationship between the first two words. Then, try to use the same sentence to find out which of the answer choices completes the same relationship with the third word.

1.            Odometer is to mileage as compass is to

A.            speed

B.            hiking

C.            needle

D.            direction

Answer: D


An odometer is an instrument used to measure mileage. A compass is an instrument used to determine direction. Choices a, b, and c are incorrect because none is an instrument.


2.            Marathon is to race as hibernation is to

A.            winter

B.            bear

C.            dream

D.            sleep

Answer: D


A marathon is a long race and hibernation is a lengthy period of sleep. The answer is not choice a or b because even though a bear and winter are related to hibernation, neither completes the analogy. (Choice c) is incorrect because sleep and dream are not synonymous.


3.            Window is to pane as book is to

A.            novel

B.            glass

C.            cover

D.            page

Answer: D


A window is made up of panes, and a book is made up of pages. The answer is not (choice a) because a novel is a type of book. The answer is not (choice b) because glass has no relationship to a book. (Choice c) is incorrect because a cover is only one part of a book; a book is not made up of covers.


4.            Cup is to coffee as bowl is to

A.            dish

B.            soup

C.            spoon

D.            food

Answer: B


Coffee goes into a cup and soup goes into a bowl. Choices a and c are incorrect because they are other utensils. The answer is not choice d because the word food is too general.


5.            Yard is to inch as quart is to

A.            gallon

B.            ounce

C.            milk

D.            liquid

Answer: B


A yard is a larger measure than an inch (a yard contains 36 inches). A quart is a larger measure than an ounce (a quart contains 32 ounces). Gallon (choice a) is incorrect because it is larger than a quart. Choices c and d are incorrect because they are not units of measurement.


6.            Elated is to despondent as enlightened is to

A.            aware

B.            ignorant

C.            miserable

D.            tolerant

Answer: B


Elated is the opposite of despondent; enlightened is the opposite of ignorant.


7.            Optimist is to cheerful as pessimist is to

A.            gloomy

B.            mean

C.            petty

D.            helpful

Answer: A


An optimist is a person whose outlook is cheerful. A pessimist is a person whose outlook is gloomy. The answer is not (choice b) because a pessimist does not have to be mean. (Choices c) and d are incorrect because neither adjective describes the outlook of a pessimist.


8.            Reptile is to lizard as flower is to

A.            petal

B.            stem

C.            daisy

D.            alligator

Answer: C


A lizard is a type of reptile; a daisy is a type of flower. Choices a and b are incorrect because a petal and a stem are parts of a flower, not types of flowers. (Choice d) is incorrect because an alligator is another type of reptile, not a type of flower.


9.            Play is to actor as concert is to

A.            symphony

B.            musician

C.            piano

D.            percussion

Answer: B


An actor performs in a play. A musician performs at a concert. Choices a, c, and d are incorrect because none is people who perform.


10.          Sponge is to porous as rubber is to

A.            massive

B.            solid

C.            elastic

D.            inflexible

Answer: C


A sponge is a porous material. Rubber is an elastic material. (Choice a) is incorrect because rubber would not generally be referred to as massive. The answer is not (choice b) because even though rubber is a solid, its most noticeable characteristic is its elasticity. Choice d is incorrect because rubber has flexibility.


11.          Careful is to cautious as boastful is to

A.            arrogant

B.            humble

C.            joyful

D.            suspicious

Answer: A


Careful and cautious are synonyms (they mean the same thing). Boastful and arrogant are also synonyms. The answer is not (choice b) because humble means the opposite of boastful. The answer is not choice c or d because neither means the same as boastful.


12.          Pen is to poet as needle is to

A.            thread

B.            button

C.            sewing

D.            tailor

Answer: D


A pen is a tool used by a poet. A needle is a tool used by a tailor. The answer is not choice a, b, or c because none is a person and therefore cannot complete the analogy.


13.          Secretly is to openly as silently is to

A.            scarcely

B.            impolitely

C.            noisily

D.            quietly

Answer: C


Secretly is the opposite of openly, and silently is the opposite of noisily. Choices a and b are clearly not the opposites of silently. (Choice d) means the same thing as silently.


14.          Embarrassed is to humiliated as frightened is to

A.            terrified

B.            agitated

C.            courageous

D.            reckless

Answer: A


If someone has been humiliated, they have been greatly embarrassed. If someone is terrified, they are extremely frightened. The answer is not choice b because an agitated person is not necessarily frightened. Choices c and d are incorrect because neither word expresses a state of being frightened.


15.          Pride is to lion as shoal is to

A.            teacher

B.            student

C.            self-respect

D.            fish

Answer: D


A group of lions is called a pride. A group of fish swim in a shoal. Teacher (choice a) and student (choice b) refer to another meaning of the word school. The answer is not (choice c) because self-respect has no obvious relationship to this particular meaning of school.


16.          Artist is to painting as senator is to

A.            attorney

B.            law

C.            politician

D.            constituents

Answer: B


An artist makes paintings; a senator makes laws. The answer is not (choice a) because an attorney does not make laws and a senator is not an attorney. Choice c is incorrect because a senator is not a politician. Constituents (choice d) is also incorrect because a senator serves his or her constituents.


17.          Exercise is to gym as eating is to

A.            food

B.            dieting

C.            fitness

D.            restaurant

Answer: D


A gym is a place where people exercise. A restaurant is a place where people eat. Food (choice a) is not the answer because it is something people eat, not a place or location where they eat. The answer is not choice b or c because neither represents a place where people eat.


18.          Candid is to indirect as honest is to

A.            frank

B.            wicked

C.            truthful

D.            untruthful

Answer: D


Candid and indirect refer to opposing traits. Honest and untruthful refer to opposing traits. The answer is not (choice a) because frank means the same thing as candid. Wicked (choice b) is incorrect because even though it refers to a negative trait, it does not mean the opposite of honest. (Choice c) is incorrect because truthful and honest mean the same thing.


19.          Guide is to direct as reduce is to

A.            decrease

B.            maintain

C.            increase

D.            preserve

Answer: A


Guide and direct are synonyms, and reduce and decrease are synonyms. The answer is not choice b or d because neither means the same as reduce. (Choice c) is incorrect because increase is the opposite of reduce.


20.          Oar is to rowboat as foot is to

A.            running

B.            sneaker

C.            skateboard

D.            jumping

Answer: C


An oar puts a rowboat into motion. A foot puts a skateboard into motion. The answer is not choice a because running is not an object that is put into motion by a foot. Sneaker (choice b) is incorrect because it is something worn on a foot. Jumping (choice d) is incorrect because although you do need feet to jump, jumping is not an object that is put into motion by means of a foot.

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